Buffalo Bisons/Tri-Cities Blackhawks and the National Basketball League
With Ben Kerner, Ferris founded the Buffalo Bisons, which started play in the National Basketball League in 1946. One of the first moves by the forward-thinking Ferris was to sign William "Pop" Gates, formerly of the famed New York Renaissance. The B.A.A. had no blacks and this signing helped integrate the N.B.L.. "When Leo Ferris came to me, it was like a godsend," (Pop) Gates said. "It was a real highlight in my career to be accepted by the N.B.L. as one of the only two blacks in the league." Through the league's (N.B.L.) efforts and the initiative of owners like Leo Ferris and Les Harrison, professional basketball became a more representative American institution. During preseason, Leo scheduled games in Utica, NY and his hometown of Elmira, NY in hopes that pro basketball would catch on and establish its own pro team to be used as a farm club for Buffalo. Although the farm system had been used in baseball for years, it was almost unheard of in the sport of professional basketball. After suffering heavy financial losses during the first 13 games of the 1946-47 season in Buffalo, the Bisons moved into the Tri-Cities area of Moline & Rock Island, IL and Davenport, IA, and became the Blackhawks from 1946-51. The Hawks are presently operating in Atlanta, after brief stops in Milwaukee and St. Louis.
Rumors began to surface of an NBL-BAA merger in early 1948. Joe Lapchick was quoted as saying, "right now there are seven National League clubs ready to jump to the BAA. But I don't look for any merger to take place before the 1949-50 season." When the Indianapolis Kautskys and Fort Wayne Zollner Pistons decided to jump leagues from the NBL to the BAA on May 9, 1948, the Tri-Cities Blackhawks signed University of Iowa star Murray Weir. According to BAA president Maurice Podoloff, this was in violation of an agreement between the leagues on a bi-lateral player draft. Leo and Blackhawks club president Bryan Grafton maintained no such agreement had been signed. "Even if there was an agreement," fumed Ferris, "we maintain there would have been no violation since the two leagues are apparently no longer working together in unison or harmony. If there was any bolting by NBL clubs to the BAA, there will be open bidding for players. A player war seems inevitable." Within hours of the first two team switching leagues, announcement was made that the Minneapolis Lakers and Rochester Royals had also left the NBL for the BAA. When Ward (Piggy) Lambert resigned as commissioner, Paul Walk resigned as president and Tom Carneghie quit as publicity director,  Leo formally took over as acting president of the National Basketball League. "We have severed relations with the Basketball Association of America," Ferris proclaimed, as the National League rulers declared all players of the departed clubs National League property, and said the NBL will redistribute the talent. On June 15, 1948, Ike Duffey, owner of the Anderson Packers, was named as president and Ferris would resume his previous role as league vice-president.
In the 1948 offseason, N.B.L. vice-president Leo went to work right away to solidify his league's future. After the 1947-48 campaign, he worked with Dan Biasone and reorganized the Syracuse Nationals by making the team public through offering 25 stocks at $1,000 apiece. When Rochester jumped leagues, star player Al Cervi showed his loyalty to the N.B.L. and signed with the Syracuse Nats. Leo then signed Billy Gabor for the Syracuse Nationals, outbidding the Rochester Royals for his services. His next move was to negotiate a contract with future Hall-of-Famer Dolph Schayes. Once again, on behalf of the Nats, Ferris signed Schayes and the New York Knicks lost out on his services.
The biggest off-season move preceeding the 1949-50 season was the signing of the two-time NCAA Champion "Fabulous Five" of the University of Kentucky by Ferris on May 5, 1949. By brokering a deal for Kentucky's stars to own their team in three years time, he was able to lure away All-Americas Alex Groza, Ralph Beard and Wallace "Wah Wah" Jones, with teammates Joe Holland and Cliff Barker, from signing player deals with the rival B.A.A. league. The players had expressed interest in playing together after college, and were offered $50,000 in operating expenses to support their team in Indianapolis named the Olympians. Excited about the Kentucky Five signing and despite the urging of Les Harrison, of the former N.B.L. member Rochester Royals to join the B.A.A. for the 1949-50 basketball season, Danny Biasone declared Syracuse would stay put for its fourth season in the National League. On June 30, 1949, The N.B.L. announced it had leased the Butler University Fieldhouse, which had been used by the B.A.A.'s Indianapolis Jets the previous season. This moved pushed the Jets out of the Indianapolis market. This move would reopen merger dialogue between the two leagues on July 1, 1949.
Although it would take almost a month of talks until the merger finally happened, the newspapers were quick to point out Ferris' role in forcing the merger. Columnist Bill Reddy wrote: "Ferris is credited with one of the master strokes of the N.B.L. this summer, in signing the members of the University of Kentucky's Olympic and national basketball champions to form an Indianapolis team in the NBL. When he also arranged for use of the huge Butler field house for the Kentucky stars, Ferris virtually closed the door to B.A.A. operation in that city." Art Deutsch, who had worked with Ferris since his Buffalo Bisons days and would follow him to Syracuse to work for the Nationals, quoted New York Knicks owner Ned Irish as saying: "If you can't beat 'em (the N.B.L), join 'em."
The First National Basketball Association Executive Committee
Upon formation of the NBA on August 3, 1949, new league officials were named. The president of the old Basketball Association of America, Maurice Podoloff, would be named president of the new league. Likewise, the old National Basketball League president, Ike Duffy, was named as chairman of the board of governors. The inaugural executive committee included Leo Ferris of Moline, Walter Brown of Boston, Ned Irish of New York, Eddie Gottlieb of Philadelphia, and Carl Bennett of Fort Wayne. The purpose of the executive committee was to adopt a constitution, work out a schedule, playoff plans, player limits and length of games. Some of the first tasks of the committee was to curb fouling at the end of games, speed up the games and widen the lanes to "curb the big man". The first rule changes were:
- During the last five minutes of a regulation game and in all overtime periods, there shall be a jump ball after each successful free throw, or in the case of two free throws, after the second, if successful. The jump ball shall take place between the two players involved in the foul at the circle where the free throw was made. This did not help speed up the game, and the jump ball gave way to the opposing team's man tossing the ball inbounds to a teammate.
- Players of the defensive team shall occupy the positions nearest the basket when a free throw is made, instead of one player from each team. This rule is still in use today.
- The free throw lanes be widened from the present six feet to 12 feet, so that the lines bounding the free throw lanes shall terminate at the extremites of the free throw line. This rule was meant to be used on a one-month trial basis, but became permanent in 1951 and was known as "The Mikan Rule."
Syracuse Nationals and the National Basketball Association
On November 2, 1949, Leo Ferris was named the Executive Director of the Syracuse Nationals. Also bidding for Leo's services was former N.B.L. president Ike Duffey of the Anderson Packers basketball club. Said Ferris "I chose Syracuse because I believe this city is one of the finest sports towns in the country and certainly one of the soundest in the National Basketball Association."
Always looking for new ways to get a competitive edge and bring home the most quality of players, Leo joined George P. Hodges, Jr. of Utica, NY in the purchase of the legendary Philadelphia Sphas franchise of the American Basketball League. ABL President John O'Brien made the announcement of the sale on July 8, 1950 and indicated the franchise would be relocated to Utica. The Syracuse Nationals would form a working agreement with the Utica club as a farm system for players on September 20, 1950. At the time, "It is believed to be the first workable farm system in professional basketball today." Former Nat Leroy Chollet became player-coach on Octoober 11, 1950 for the new team, and he was joined by another former National, Al Masino.
Again, the need to save the Nats and keep the team in Syracuse arose in 1953. Former Anderson Packers owner Ike Duffey tendered a $150,000 offer to buy the team and move it to Chicago. The offer was turned down in favor of Leo leading a funding drive to raise $200,000 capital for future team expenses. Detroit businessmen made another pitch for the team in 1954, but the team's surprising NBA Finals run brought new interest into the team. Leo was successful in keeping the Nats in Syracuse a total of two times as general manager of the club and once as vice-president of the National Basketball League.
On February 2, 1954, executive vice-president of the Nats, Leo Ferris, announced a television viewer fundraising drive to raise $100,000. To achieve this goal, Ferris proposed selling $5 worth of tickets to 20,000 fans for the following season. In return, the Nats would guarantee 10 home games would be televised locally for the 1954-55 season. The drive would last until March 15, 1954. Ferris could not speculate as to the Nats' future if the fundraising drive should fail. "We need a solution to continue operations," Ferris said.
Concerns about a fan-unfriendly slow pace led to discussion of adding a shot clock to NBA games, adding possessions and excitement. If any team had a comfortable lead heading into the closing moments of a game, they stalled and held the ball. The opposing team would foul, give up a free throw attempt, and gain possession of the ball. This would then repeat itself until the final whistle. It made for a dull game and fans would start leaving games long before they officially finished. In 1950, the Fort Wayne Pistons defeated the Minneapolis Lakers by a very low score of 19-18, using stalling tactics and having guys stand around with little action. Ferris and Danny Biasone — owner of the Syracuse Nationals, where Ferris was general manager — are often given credit for the selection of 24 seconds, though there is evidence that Ferris may deserve the lion's share. It has been stated a few times that the actual formula was devised by Ferris, and during a pre-season luncheon introducing the 24-second clock, Nats Publicity Director Bob Sexton pointed out that the rule was recommended by General Manager Ferris. The 24-seconds used in the shot clock formula was chosen by figuring that the average number of shots two teams would take during a game. For the 1950-51 through 1952-53 seasons, that number was 120 shots per contest. He divided that number into 48 minutes or 2,880 seconds, the length of a game. The answer was 24 seconds and that number has remained until this day.
In 2005, Syracuse Mayor Matt Driscoll and County Executive Nick Pirro proclaimed 26 March as 24-Second Shot Clock Community Recognition Day listing Leo Ferris as one of the inventors of the shot-clock.
Leo understood there was no show without the fan. He arranged for season-ticket holder appreciation nights "as a demonstration of good will and appreciation to the fans who have made Syracuse the most loyal basketball city in the National Basketball Association." He boosted attendance and expanded the possibilities of the types of entertainment one could enjoy at a basketball game. His innovating basketball promotions were ahead of the time. His promotions took on a life of their own, often referred to as the "Ferris Wheel." Among his endless list of stunts were a helium filled blimp that floatd above downtown Syracuse advertising the next home game, benefit games for different community groups, basketball luncheons, special nights for industry and high school entertainment nights. In the War Memorial, a portable revolving stage was set up at half court 45 minutes before game time, where a piano player would entertain until player introductions. The piano played during the player practices until 10 minutes before game time. Leo had introduced pregame warm-up music to basketball, and had increased pregame attendance from hundreds to thousands. As a promoter he brought acts like Bob Hope, Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis, Sarah Vaughn, Duke Ellington, and many others to Syracuse and some even provided halftime entertainment for the Syracuse Nationals home games.
National Basketball League (before NBL/BAA merger)
- 24 Apr 1946- Named General Manager of the Buffalo (Bisons) Legion Basketball Club.
- 19 Jul 1946- Signed Mel Thurston, formerly of Canisius College.
- 22 Jun 1946- Signed Don Otten, formerly of Bowling Green University.
- 24 Jul 1946- Signed Bobby Daugherty of Virginia Union University.
- 30 Jul 1946- Signed Nat Hickey as coach of Bisons.
- 16 Aug 1946- Signed Howard and Len Rader, formerly of Long Island University.
- 5 Sep 1946- Signed Mark Marlaire, formerly of the University of Illinois.
- 13 Oct 1946- Signed William "Pop" Gates.
- 27 Oct 1946- Released Bobby Daugherty, Eddie Thomas and Eddie Cochren. Waived Mark Marlaire to Syracuse.
- 29 Nov 1946- Signed Pat Rooney, formerly of the Pennsylvania State League.
- 24 Dec 1946- Announced the transfer of the Buffalo Bisons basketball club to Moline, Illinois. The team was renamed the Tri-Cities Blackhawks.
- 17 Jul 1947- Named Executive Vice-President of the Tri-Cities Blackhawks.
- 9 May 1948- Signed Murray Weir, University of Iowa. Acted in capacity of Blackhawks General Manager. Terms $7,500.
- 7 Jul 1948- Signed Al Cervi, former Rochester Royals guard, after Rochester made the decision to move to the B.A.A.. Acted in capacity of N.B.L. Vice-President.
- 24 Jul 1948- Signed Billy Gabor, Syracuse's territorial 1948 draft choice. Outbid Rochester Royals of B.A.A.. Acted in capacity of N.B.L. Vice-President.
- 27 Jul 1948- Signed Chuck "The Rifleman" Connors to the Syracuse Nationals. Acted in capacity of N.B.L. Vice-President.
- 30 Sep 1948- Signed Dolph Schayes, Syracuse's 1948 draft choice. Terms $7,000 plus $500 bonus. Outbid New York Knicks of B.A.A.. Acted in capacity of N.B.L. Vice-President.
- 14 Feb 1949- Released Bobby McDermott, player-coach. Named Roger Potter as coach. Acted in capacity of Blackhawks General Manager.
- 14 Apr 1949- Signed Jack Kerris to the Tri-Cities Blackhawks. Outbid Chicago Stags of B.A.A.. Acted in capacity of Blackhawks General Manager.
- 4 May 1949- Signed Alex Groza, Ralph Beard, Wallace Jones, Joe Holland and Cliff Barker, and brokered a deal for the players to own the Indianapolis Olympians within three years. Terms $50,000 in operating expenses. Outbid various B.A.A. teams for all players. This move also contributed to the B.A.A.'s Indianapolis Jets suspending operations. Acted in capacity of N.B.L. Vice-President.
- 25 Jun 1949- Received signed contract of Dike Eddleman, formerly of the University of Illinois. Acted in capacity of Blackhawks General Manager.
National Basketball Association (after NBL/BAA merger, 3 Aug 1949)
- 25 Oct 1949- Resigned as General Manager and Executive Director of the Tri-Cities Blackhawks.
- 2 Nov 1949- Named Executive Director of the Syracuse Nationals.
- 22 Jul 1950- Signed 1950 NBA 1st draft choice Don Lofgran of the University of San Francisco.
- 11 Dec 1950- Sold Belus Smawley to the Baltimore Bullets for cash.
- 13 Dec 1950- Traded center Ed Peterson of the Syracuse Nationals for center Noble Jorgensen of the Tri-City Blackhawks.
- 12 Feb 1951- Sold Don Lofgran to Indianapolis Olympians.
- 2 Oct 1951- Signed Billy Gabor for 1951-52 season.
- 15 May 1952- Signed 1952 NBA 1st round draft choice Bob Lochmueller of University of Louisville.
- 29 Sep 1952- Signed Noble Jorgensen for the 1952-53 season.
- 7 Oct 1952- Signed Gerry Calabrese, formerly of St. John's University.
- 4 May 1953- Signed 1953 NBA 1st round draft choice Jim Neal of Wofford College. Terms $5,000 plus $500 bonus.
- 15 Sep 1953- Signed 1953 NBA 2nd round draft choice Dick Knostman of Kansas State University.
- 15 May 1954- Signed Dick Farley, Nats' 1954 2nd round draft choice.
- 12 Jun 1954- Signed Johnny "Red" Kerr, Nats' 1954 1st round draft choice. Terms $5,000 plus $500 bonus.
- 25 Aug 1954- Signed 1952 NBA draft choice Ken McBride of University of Maryland - Eastern Shore.
- 26 Nov 1954- Obtained Connie Simmons in dispersal draft of Baltimore Bullets.
- 28 Dec 1954- Resigned as General Manager of the Syracuse Nationals.
"If the guy (Leo) stays in the game - and I say this seriously - he might have been commissioner. When you think about it, his hand is on the three core steps that made basketball big-time: 1.) Making the game diverse, the act of conscience and historic change that made basketball what it is 2.) Creating the NBA, the merger that made the game major league 3.) The shot clock, the innovation that saved basketball. There's a pretty stunning trio of accomplishments." -Sean Kirst, via Facebook, 1 Jan 2017
To my mind, Leo Ferris has done the outstanding promotional job in professional sports. But there is no one man--no one factor--entirely responsible for the Blackhawks' success. The players have been a factor. Leo Ferris has been a factor. So have the radio and the press. -Ike Duffy, owner of the Anderson Packers and National Basketball League president
Syracuse had a losing proposition until I helped the club reorganize and got 25 local men interested. Last season, the first under this civic sponsorship, Syracuse made up $30,000 of its losses. -Leo Ferris
The merger (NBL & BAA) must be successful or pro basketball will collapse. With men like Leo Ferris and Ike Duffy figuring prominently in the new setup I can't see how it can fail. -Al Cervi
That Ferris could teach Branch Rickey of the Brooklyn Dodgers a few things about selling. -Tony Lavelli, leaving Boston Celtics general manager Walter Brown's office after signing his player contract. Leo Ferris had stopped by the day before and suggested letting Lavelli play his accordion during half time. Beforehand, Lavelli had planned on leaving the court game for a music career.
This year (1949-50), however, in its first 14 home games the team (Syracuse Nationals) packed a total of 73,468 fans into its stadium's 6,400 seats and standing areas. Most of the so-called experts credit the success to a shrewd player-coach (Cervi) on the floor and an equally shrewd young man in the business office (Ferris)...To handle the business end of the enterprise, Biasone this year imported Leo F. Ferris, also 32, and named him the club's executive director. Ferris, a member of the NBA's six man executive committee, is credited with stepping up the club's attendance with high powered promotional methods.
Danny finally came up with a brilliant array of players this season (1949-50), and in acquiring the players Biasone never counted the expense. If Al Cervi wanted them, Danny got them, with notable assistance from the Executive Director, Leo Ferris. But in all the money expended, the greater portion was Biasone's, and you'll never hear a grumble from Danny about it.
In addition, Ferris was the guiding genius as the NBL grabbed the cream of the college crop away from the BAA's draft, and when the time came to talk terms, the BAA was more than willing to listen to Ferris' merger proposals. "Get an attractive 'package,' and put it within reach of the greatest possible number of customers. Satisfy the fans, and you have a steady and increasing following. That's what pro basketball is doing." - Leo Ferris
Syracuse has become the professional basketball center of the country. I have the figures on attendance throughout the National Basketball Association, and I can tell you now that only New York outdraws Syracuse. When you consider the enormous difference in population, you realize that Syracuse doesn't suffer by comparison. Instead, New York suffers by contrast. -Maurice Podoloff, President of the National Basketball Association (NBA), while speaking at the Syracuse Radio-Newspaper luncheon on 9 Jan 1951.
It must be admitted that the basketball fortunes of the Syracuse Nationals began to climb steadily upwards as soon as Danny Biasone decided that Ferris could help him in the operation of the local club.
I feel Leo Ferris cannot be replaced. He works day and night in the best interests of the Nats. He knows his business. Everything he does is honest and above board. - Dan Biasone.
Shared a Sports Arena chair Tuesday night with Leo Ferris, the suave, young Buffalo advertising executive, who doubles in professional basketball. A gifted salesman and tireless worker, Leo took over a dilapidated Syracuse club three years ago and by intelligent administrative direction and high-voltage promotion converted the Nationals into the most successful and lucrative in professional basketball. While most promoters are moaning and grumbling over the lack of customer patronage today, Ferris can point proudly to an electrifying attendance increase of 25 percent at Nats' home games this season. This despite the fact that the basketballers, for the first time, are competing for fan patronage with the American Hockey League Warriors.
What's more impressive is by the end of the following 1952 season Syracuse finished a handsome first in the box-office scramble, their gross receipts topping those of the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, and the champion Minneapolis Lakers during the regular season. This represents a rousing personal triumph for the Nats head man the tireless Leo Ferris, whose blue ribbon selling and promotion job ranks as exhibit A in pro basketball's box office show case. 
There are those, however, who must admire the balding genius (Al Cervi) who has teamed with front office manipulator Leo Ferris to keep the Nats always at or near the top of the basketball pile. 
There isn't a promoter in the world who can touch his ability.- Ike Duffey, who just made a $150,000 purchase offer on the Syracuse Nationals. He wanted Leo to come along as a salaried associate.
Leo Ferris, the Buffalonian who is executive vice-president of the Nats, is recognized as the David Harum of the NBA. He subscribed to newspapers in almost every community in the country, and had a running file on almost every college player. As a result, he came up with several sleepers in the draft.
The recent column on Al Cervi here didn't mention Leo Ferris, whose astute general managership was a major factor in the rise of the Syracuse Nats to pro cage prominence. Ferris, who resigned recently, was matchless in uncovering talents to fit in with Cervi's coaching program. 
The formula used to create the 24-second clock--the 2,880 seconds of a 48-minute game divided by the average number of shots a game over the previous three seasons (120)--was actually devised by Biasone's general manager, Leo Ferris. 
At a time when NBA owners in big-market cities struggled to survive by offering only basketball, Ferris generated crowds through innovation and energy.
While Coach Howard Hobson of Oregon and Yale is originally credited with the idea, the Shot Clock was truly the brainchild of Syracuse National’s executive Leo Ferris, then-owner Danny Biasone, and Emil Barboni. 
Before the clock, there was no game at all. It would get into the second half, and the team that was ahead would just kill the ball, and then you'd have to foul. Then they would foul you, and the game would deteriorate. The game stunk. It was a march from one foul line to the other. Something had to be done. -Dolph Schayes 
Biasone, a member of the league's rules committee, continued to badger anyone and everyone, warning that a game lacking in time limits of possession would never last, much less grow...Eventually, enough league owners listened to him, and adopted a formula that had been divised by Biasone's general manasger, Leo Ferris: the 2,880 seconds of a 48-minute game divided by the average number of shots a game over the previous three seasons (120). 
The Nationals' "recipe for success" began by recruiting Leo F. Ferris, then a talented team executive to reorganize the Syracuse team. 
- Leo Ferris' 24-second Contribution
- Elmira's Leo Ferris helped shape the NBA
- Long-forgotten Leo Ferris helped devise NBA's 24-second clock, first used 61 years ago today
- National efforts to honor Syracuse hoops pioneers: Good day to remember Earl Lloyd, Leo Ferris
- Team that's now Atlanta Hawks bailed on Buffalo 70 years ago
Hall of Fames
On December 13, 2016, the Illinois Basketball Coaches Association included Leo into their 2017 Hall of Fame class.
On June 20, 2017, the Greater Syracuse Sports Hall of Fame inducted Leo in their 2017 class.
He has been nominated for induction by the Veterans Committee of the Naismith Basketball Hall of Fame.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Leo Ferris, a Founder of N.B.A., Dies at 76." New York Times. 5 Jun 1993:28. Proquest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Jun 2016.
- ↑ Gould, Todd. Pioneers of the Hardwood. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780253028112.
- ↑ "Bison Basketball Club To Have Farm Teams." Buffalo Courier-Express. 21 Sep 1946:14. Fulton History. Web. 10 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Buffalo Pro Cagers Start Practice In Armory Monday." Elmira Star-Gazette. 19 Oct 1946:6. Fulton History. Web. 10 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Cushing, Elliot. "Sports Eye View." Rochester Democrat & Chronicle. 5 Feb 1948:22. Fulton History. Web. 12 Aug 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "National League Facing Crucial Meeting Today." Sheboygan Press. 10 May 1948:14. Fulton History. Web. 12 Jun 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Four Quintets Jump To New Loop." New York Times. 11 May 1948:34. Proquest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Jun 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "National Loop Threatens Suit In BAA Fight." The Washington Post. 12 May 1948:19. Proquest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Jun 2016.
- ↑ International News Service. "Four Teams Abandon National To Join Rival Basketball Loop." Buffalo Courier-Express. 11 May 1948:19. Fulton History. Web. 4 Aug 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Named Cage President." Baltimore Sun. 16 Jun 1948:20. Proquest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Jun 2016.
- ↑ United Press. "Kentucky Cage Stars Form Club." Binghamton Press. 5 May 1949:24. Fulton History. Web. 29 Aug 2016.
- ↑ "Nats' Owner To Keep Team In National." The Post Standard Syracuse, NY. 6 May 1949:20. Fulton History. Web. 7 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Merger Talk Revived As N.B.L. Leases Butler Field House.", Chicago Tribune. 1 July 1949:36. Chicago Tribune Archives. Web. 20 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Reddy, Bill. "Syracuse to Move Into Basketball Association of America." The Post Standard, Syracuse, NY. 3 Aug 1949:13. Newspaper Archive. Web. 1 Aug 2016.
- ↑ Pinckney, Paul. "In And Out Of The Question." Rochester Democrat Chronicle. 13 February 1959:23. Fulton History. Web. 28 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Cage Leaders Split Circuit." The Sun. Baltimore, MD. 12 Aug 1949:17. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Jun 2016
- ↑ Associated Press. "Pro Cage Loop Divides Into Two Divisions, National, American." Freeport Journal-Standard. 12 Aug 1949:10. Newspapers.com. Web. 17 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Three Radical Cage Changes Proposed By NBA Executive Board." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 6 Dec 1949:15. Fulton History. Web. 17 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Ferris Spurns Anderson Offer For Syracuse Post." The Post Standard, Syracuse, NY. 3 Nov 1949:17. Fulton History. Web. 7 Jul 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Philly Franchise Goes To Utica." Washington Post. 9 Jul 1950:C4. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Jun 2016.
- ↑ "Lakers To Play Here Nov. 7; Utes, Nats Sign Agreement." Utica Daily Press. 21 Sep 1950:15. Fulton History. Web. 13 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Chollet Named Coach of New Utica Cage Team." The Post Standard. 12 Oct 1950:26. Fulton History. Web. 12 Jun 2016.
- ↑ Andrews, Jack. "Ferris Resigns As General Manager Of Syracuse Nationals." The Post Standard. 28 Dec 1954:13. Fulton History. Web. 22 Oct 2016.
- ↑ "Nationals to Try Plan Aimed at Bracing Finances." The Leader-Republican, Gloversville & Johnstown, NY. 3 Feb 1954:14. Fulton History. Web. 3 Aug 2016.
- ↑ Andrews, Jack. "Time Out." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 30 Oct 1974:37. Fulton History. Web. 11 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "New NBA Rules Lauded At Nationals' Luncheon." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 22 Oct 1954:33. Fulton History. Web. 11 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Andrews, Jack. "Nationals Invade West Minus Injured Chollet." The Post Standard, Syracuse, NY. 20 Feb 1951:12. Newspaper Archive. Web. 2 Oct 2016.
- ↑ Quinlan, Mike. "Syracuse Nats Succeed Through Promotion Ideas." Niagara Falls Gazette. 5 Feb 1952:16. Fulton History. Web. 3 Oct 2016.
- ↑ Lillich, Frank. "Promotional Moves Aid Ferris' Cagers at Gate." Buffalo Courier Express. 16 Dec 1951:2-C. Fulton History. Web. 3 Aug 2016.
- ↑ United Press. "Buffalo To Play In Pro Cage Loop." Niagara Falls Gazette. 24 Apr 1946:17. Fulton History. Web. 13 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Mel Thurston Is New Bison Cager." Buffalo Courier-Express. 19 Jul 1946:17. Fulton History. Web. 12 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Bison Cagers Sign Nat Hickey As Coach." Buffalo Courier-Express. 23 Jun 1946:15-B. Fulton History. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
- ↑ United Press. "Buffalo Five Signs Negro." Albany Knickerbocker News. 24 Jul 1946:10-B. Fulton History. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Buffalo Cage Team Signs Giant Otten." Buffalo Courier-Express. 31 Jul 1946:12. Fulton History. Web. 11 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Buffalo Five Signs Rader Twins." Buffalo Courier-Express. 17 Aug 1946:11. Fulton History. Web. 11 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Bisons Get Mark Marlaire, 6-2 Cager." Buffalo Courier-Express. 6 Sep 1946:20. Fulton History. Web. 10 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Buffalo Cagers Announce Signing Of Colored Star." Niagara Falls Gazette. 14 Oct 1946:17. Fulton History. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Bison Basketballers Leave For New York." Buffalo Courier-Express. 28 Oct 1946:15. Fulton History. Web. 10 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Pat Rooney Signs With Cage Bisons." Buffalo Courier-Express. 30 Nov 1946:16. Fulton History. Web. 11 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Chicago Tribune Press Service. "Buffalo Cage Franchise To Moline." Buffalo Courier-Express. 24 Dec 1946:20. Fulton History. Web. 10 Sep 2016.
- ↑ United Press. "Sid To Manage Moline Cagers." Toledo Blade. 17 Jul 1947:29. Google Newspapers.Web. 3 Sep 2016.
- ↑ United Press. "Wier Prefers Gifts And Pro Standing." Fort Madison Evening Democrat. Fort Madison, IA. 10 Apr 1948:2. Newspaper Archives. Web. 27 May 2017.
- ↑ "Cervi Signed As Player-Coach Of Syracuse Pro Basketeers." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 8 Jul 1948:15. Fulton History. Web. 9 Jun 2016.
- ↑ "Billy (The Bullet) Gabor Signs to Play Basketball for Nats." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 25 Jul 1948:13. Fulton History. Web. 9 Jun 2016.
- ↑ “Nats Sign Connors, Royals First-Sacker.” The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 28 Jul 1948:11. Fulton History. Web. 24 Apr 2017.
- ↑ "Nationals Sign Adolph Schayes." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 1 Oct 1948:20. Fulton History. Web. 4 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Hawks Drop McDermott." Rochester Democrat Chronicle. 15 Feb 1949:22. Fulton History. Web. 8 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Jack Kerris To Play With Hawks In National Loop." The Times Record. Troy, NY. 14 Apr 1948:38. Fulton History. Web. 6 Sep 2016.
- ↑ United Press. "Kentucky Stars Form New Indianapolis Club." Davenport Democrat Leader. 5 May 1949:31 Newspaper Archive. Web. 12 May 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Eddleman Signs With Blackhawks." St. Petersburg Times. 26 Jun 1949:25. Google Newspapers. Web. 3 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Leo Ferris Resigns." Buffalo Courier-Express. 26 Oct 1949:19. Fulton History. Web. 6 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Leo Ferris Named" The Sun. Baltimore, MD. 3 Nov 1949:SPF20. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Jun 2016.
- ↑ "Lofgran, All-American Cager, Signed By Nats." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 23 Jul 1950:32. Newspaper Archive. Web. 2 Oct 2016.
- ↑ Andrews, Jack. "Nats Sell Smawley To Bullets." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 12 Dec 1950:13. Newspaper Archive. Web. 2 Oct 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Draft-Riddled Tri-Cities Bids For Cap Franchise." Buffalo Courier-Express. 14 Dec 1950:31. Fulton History. Web. 16 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Nationals Sell Lofgran To Indianapolis Olympians." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 13 Feb 1951:12. Newspaper Archive. Web. 2 Oct 2016.
- ↑ "Gabor Signs Pact In Time For Nats Tilt With Orange." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 3 Oct 1951:19. Newspaper Archive. Web. 2 Oct 2016.
- ↑ "Lochmueller, Louisville Cage Ace, Signed By Nats." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 25 May 1952:12. Newspaper Archive. Web. 2 Oct 2016.
- ↑ "Jorgensen And Ratkovicz Agree To Terms With Nationals." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 30 Sep 1952:12. Fulton History. Web. 16 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Calabrese Back In Action As Nats Prep For Campaign." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 8 Oct 1952:20. Fulton History. Web. 16 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Elliott, Bill. "Neal, Big Wofford Center, Signs Syracuse Contract." The Herald Journal. Spartanburg, SC. 10 May 1953:B-1. Google Newspapers. Web. 3 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Knostman, Big 7 Star, Signs With Nationals." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 16 Sep 1953:19. Fulton History. Web. 9 Jun 2016.
- ↑ "Farley, Indiana Cager, Signed By Nationals." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 16 May 1954:33. Fulton History. Web. 9 Jun 2016.
- ↑ "Kerr, No. 1 Draft Selection, Signs Nats' Contract." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 13 Jun 1954:34. Fulton History. Web. 9 Jun 2016.
- ↑ Salzberg, Charles. From Set Shot To Slam Dunk. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1987. p. 193 ISBN: 0525245553.
- ↑ "Nats Sign Army Star." Ogdensburg Journal. 28 Aug 1954:4. New York Historical Newspapers. Web. 3 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Andrews, Jack. "Nats Acquire Simmons in Draft as Baltimore Collapses." The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. 27 Nov 1954:11. Newspaper Archive. Web. 9 May 2016.
- ↑ Janoff, Murray. "Lapchick Takes Blame For Knick Loss." Long Island Star Journal. 29 Dec 1954:13. Fulton History. Web. 5 Sep 2016.
- ↑ "Quad-Cities Termed Capital Of Professional Basketball At Dinner Honoring Blackhawks." Davenport Democrat Leader. 1 Apr 1949:22. Newspaper Archives. Web. 12 June 2016.
- ↑ Lynch, R.G. "Pro Leagues in Tug o'War for This City.", Milwaukee Journal. 24 Jun 1949:8. Google Newspapers. Web. 2 Aug 2016.
- ↑ "Merger News Greeted Happily In Syracuse." The Post Standard, Syracuse, NY. 4 Aug 1949:11. Newspaper Archive. Web. 20 Jul 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Celtics Get Lavelli, Accordion." Saratoga Saratogian, Saratoga Springs, NY. 18 Nov 1949:12. Fulton History. 8 Jul 2016.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Starless Crew Makes Nationals Big Success", Amsterdam Daily Democrat. 5 Jan 1950:18. Fulton History. Web. 17 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Reddy, Bill. "Keeping Posted." The Post Standard, Syracuse, NY. 5 Apr 1950:20. Fulton History. Web. 6 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Lillich, Frank. "Ferris Hits Cage Peak, Plans For Hockey Wars." Buffalo Courier Express. 17 Sep 1950:4-C. Fulton History. Web. 7 Jul 2016.
- ↑ Reddy, Bill. "Keeping Posted." The Post Standard, Syracuse, NY. 9 Jan 1951:10. Fulton History. Web. 12 Jun 2016.
- ↑ Reddy, Bill. "Keeping Posted." The Post Standard, Syracuse, NY. 13 May 1951:37. Newspaper Archive. Web. 6 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Andrews, Jack. "Biasone Supports Ferris As Two Nats' Directors Start Ouster Campaign." The Post Standard, Syracuse, NY. 1 Nov 1951:19. Fulton History. Web. 9 Jun 2016.
- ↑ Cushing, Elliot. "Sports Eye View." Rochester Democrat & Chronicle. 30 Nov 1951:38. Fulton History. Web. 9 Jun 2016.
- ↑ Cushing, Elliot. "Sports Eye View." Rochester Democrat & Chronicle. 27 Apr 1952:1D. Fulton History. Web. 3 Aug 2016.
- ↑ Gould, Jr., Alan. "Noisy Coach." Elmira Star-Gazette. 25 Nov 1952:21. Fulton History. Web. 9 Jun 2016.
- ↑ Andrews, Jack. "Duffy Renews Offer For Nats' Franchise." The Post Standard, Syracuse, NY. 16 Mar 1953:16. Newspaper Archive. Web. 1 Oct 2016.
- ↑ Ryan, Ray. "The Sports Scene." Buffalo Courier-Express. 8 Feb 1954:15. Fulton History. Web. 5 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Lillich, Frank. "Second Guessing." Buffalo Courier Express. 8 Apr 1955:23. Fulton History. Web. 9 Jun 2016.
- ↑ Araton, Harvey. "Biasone As Visionary Is N.B.A. Loss." New York Times. 28 May 1992:B14. Proquest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Jun 2016.
- ↑ Kirst, Sean. "Big Mac Could Use A Little Show Biz." The Post Standard, Syracuse, NY. 5 Jun 1993:E-1. Newspaper Archive. Web. 1 Oct 2016.
- ↑ Pirro, Nicholas J. and Driscoll, Matthew J. "24- Second Shot Clock Community Recognition Day." 26 Mar 2005. County of Onondaga and the City of Syracuse public monument dedication document.
- ↑ "Monument Unvieled." Reading Eagle. 27 Mar 2005:D8. Google Newspapers. Web. 3 Sep 2016.
- ↑ Araton, Harvey. Crashing the Borders, How Basketball Won the World and Lost Its Soul at Home. New York: Free Press, 2005. ISBN: 9781416589822.
- ↑ Baker, Mark Allen. Basketball History in Syracuse: Hoops Roots. Charleston: History Press, 2010. ISBN: 9781596299832.